Air temperature trends, variability and extremes across the Solomon Islands: 1951-2011

Past climatological studies .use only one or two local stations to describe the full climate of Solomon Islands. In this paper, we examined all available daily minimum and maximum surface air temperature data between 1951 and 2011 for all seven weather stations operated by the Solomon Islands Meteorological Service. Taro has the highest mean temperature (Tmean) at 27.5°C, owing its warmer climate to its proximity to the equator than other stations. Henderson at the central region averaged the least at 26.9°C during the same period. Honiara has the warmest Tmean on average from June through October due to its elevation. The overall annual Tmean for the country was 27.3°C with the maximum at 30.8°C and the minimum at 23.7°C. All seven stations show significant trend in Tmean, ranging from 0.14 to 0.39 °C/decade. Over three decades, the frequency of warm days (warm nights) increased by 2.2 days/decade (0.8 nights/decade) with a corresponding decrease of cool days (cool nights) by 0.4 days/decade (1.4 nights/decade). The climate of the Solomon Islands has warmed significantly between 1951 and 2011 with more warm days and nights, and fewer cool days and nights.